The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources.
FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS
Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of coal, oil and gas (combustion and industrial processes), the process of gas flaring and the manufacture of cement. For more information, see: Section 2.1.1, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016.
Territorial Emissions: Carbon dioxide emissions attributed to the country in which they physically occur. For more information see: Section 2.1.1, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016.
Consumption Emissions: Carbon dioxide emissions occurring anywhere in the world attributed to the country in which goods and services are consumed. For more information see: Section 2.1.2, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016.
Transfer Emissions: The net difference between territorial and consumption emissions; representing the emissions from the production of exports minus the emissions from the production of imports. For more information see: Section 2.1.2, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016.
Bunkers: Carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of international bunker fuels, used for international transportation, often outside of any national territory. For more information see: Section 2.1.1, The global carbon budget 1959-2015, Le Quéré et al. 2016.
MtCO2 = 1 million tonnes of CO2
To convert between carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon (C): 3.67 Mt CO2 = 1 Mt C.
kgCO2 per GDP
Carbon Intensity: Total CO2 emissions divided by GDP.
GDP: Gross Domestic Product, measured in US dollars (USD) at Purchasing Power Parity rates.
tCO2 per person
Emissions per person: t CO2 per person = tonnes CO2 per person.
CO2 emissions per person are measured as the total CO2 produced by a country as a consequence of human activities and are divided by the population of that country.
The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Full details on how to cite the data are given below and in the corresponding web links. The Global Carbon Project facilitates access to data to encourage its use and promote a good understanding of the carbon cycle. Respecting original data sources is key to help secure the support of data providers to enhance, maintain and update valuable data.
FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS
CDIAC: Boden, TA, Andres RJ, and Marland, G 2016. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA DOI:10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2016. Available at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_reg.html
UNFCCC, 2016. National Inventory Submissions 2016. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available at: http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/9492.php, accessed June 2016.
BP, 2016. Statistical Review of World Energy. Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics.html
USGS (2016): Mineral Commodities Summaries: Cement, U.S. Geological Survey. Available at: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/
CONSUMPTION & TRANSFER EMISSIONS
Updated from Peters et al. (2011): Peters, GP, Minx, JC, Weber, L, and Edenhofer, O. 2011. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1006388108.
For an explanation of issues around consumption emissions, see Peters et al. (2012): Peters, GP, Davis, SJ and Andrew, R 2012. A synthesis of carbon in international trade. Biogeosciences, 9, 3247-3276.
GDP: IEA/OECD 2015. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion Highlights 2015. Available at: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/co2-emissions-from-fuel-combustion-highlights-2015.html
UN, 2015. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. United Nations Population Division. Available at: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
LIST OF 40 COUNTRIES UPDATE USING UNFCCC REPORTING
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Switzerland, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, United Kingdom, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, United States Of America.
COUNTRIES WHOSE EMISSIONS HAVE BEEN ESTIMATED IN EARLY YEARS
Before 2012: Republic Of South Sudan, Republic Of Sudan
Before 2012: Bonaire, Saint Eustatius, and Saba; Saint Martin (Dutch Portion); Curacao
Before 2006: Montenegro, Serbia
Before 1992: Russian Federation, Georgia, Ukraine, Republic of Moldova, Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia
Before 1986: Aruba
Before 1972: Pakistan, Bangladesh
Before 1964: Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi
Before 1962: Rwanda, Burundi
Before 1945: Republic Of Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of Korea
Regional details use for fossil fuels emissions data
|Africa||Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Réunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Tanzania, Western Sahara, Zambia, Zimbabwe|
|Asia||Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, North Korea, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Macao, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, South Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam|
|Central America||Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, BES (Bonaire, Saint Eustatius, and Saba), British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Helena, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Martin (Dutch portion), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands|
|Europe||Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (Republic of), Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom|
|Middle East||Bahrain, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen|
|North America||Canada, Greenland, Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, United States of America|
|Oceania||Australia, Cook Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Fiji, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands|
|South America||Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela|
|United States||United States|
|Caribbean||Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin (French part), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands|
|Central America & Mexico||Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala|
|NonTropical S. America||Argentina, Chile, Uruguay|
|Tropical S. America||Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Bolivar Rep of|
|Europe||Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, FYR Bosnia & Herzegovina, FYR Croatia, FYR Macedonia, FYR Serbia, FYR Slovenia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom|
|Former Soviet Union||Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova Rep., Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan|
|North Africa & Middle East||Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen|
|Central Africa||Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda|
|East Africa||Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania|
|Southern Africa||Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe|
|West Africa||Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo|
|East Asia||Dem People's Rep. of Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Republic of Korea, Singapore|
|South Asia||Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka|
|Southeast Asia||Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Dem. Rep, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam|
|Oceania||Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Samoa, Sao Tome Prn, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu|